The group of infectious diseases includes a fungus on the legs, which is a type of mycosis. This pathology is caused by microscopic fungi. The disease of the nail plate is called onychomycosis.
Fungal lesion of the feet
It is a very common condition in both men and women. The most common types of mycosis are:
Some fungi can infect both animals and humans. It is necessary to know not only what mycosis is, but also why it develops. The main mechanism of human infection is contact. It is realized in direct and indirect ways. In the first case, fungi get on the feet upon contact with soil, plants or a sick person. Familial infections have been reported.
Indirect transmission of the pathogen is realized upon contact with animal care items and personal belongings of patients. These can be shoes, towels and scissors, as well as bath accessories.
Often transmission factors are socks, stockings and other personal items. Foot fungus can develop after visiting public baths and swimming pools. The process involves both the skin of the legs and the nail plates.
The contributing factors are:
- increased sweating of the legs;
- the presence of corns and abrasions;
- wearing tight shoes;
- non-observance of personal hygiene;
- wearing someone else's shoes;
- accommodation in hostels;
- weakening of immunity;
- poor nutrition;
- the presence of other skin diseases;
- alcohol addiction;
- walking barefoot;
- endocrine disorders.
Weakened people are more likely to face this problem.
General clinical manifestations
The fungus on the soles and nails can go unnoticed for a long time. With this disease, the following symptoms are observed:
- peeling of the skin;
- the presence of diaper rash;
- thickening of the skin and nail plates;
- brittle nails;
- white or yellowish bloom;
- the presence of erosion;
- soreness of the skin.
The fungus on the feet looks different. It all depends on the type of pathogen and the underlying disease. Sometimes an unpleasant odor leaves a person. The fungus on the foot does not lead to a deterioration in the general condition. Symptoms of intoxication are absent, since fungi are conditionally pathogenic microbes and are localized in the surface layers of the skin.
One leg is affected first. Then the fungi are introduced to the second limb. Most often, the following areas are involved in the process:
- rear of the foot;
- spaces between 4 and 5 fingers;
- nail plates.
Depending on the clinical signs, squamous, dyshidrotic and intertriginous forms of the disease are distinguished. In the first case, scales appear on the reddened skin. Peeling is observed. Itching is an intermittent sign. He does not bother all patients. With a dyshidrotic form of mycosis, bubbles appear on the fornix. They can grow in size. After a few days, they are opened. Erosion appears in their place. An area of diaper rash appears. As the erosion dries up, peeling is observed.
In the event that the fungus of the skin of the legs is complicated by a bacterial infection, the exudate becomes purulent. Pain appears. Fever is possible. Fungal infection sometimes provokes the development of intertriginous mycosis. Its main feature is the presence of cracks with a white rim. Oozing develops over time. Soreness appears. Erosion forms in the area of cracks. This form of the disease occurs in a chronic form with exacerbations in the summer.
Development of onychomycosis of the legs
Along with the fungus on the feet, onychomycosis can be found. With it, nails are involved in the process. The prevalence of this pathology among the population is 10-20%. In recent years, the incidence of illness in children has increased. Fungi actively grow and multiply not only on the skin, but also on the nail plates.
People with varicose veins, hyperhidrosis, flat feet and endocrine diseases often face a similar problem. Fungi multiply inside the nail, gradually leading to its destruction. If the disease is not cured, then it can last for years. The end result is nail detachment. Hyperkeratosis often develops.
Distinguish between hypertrophic, normotrophic and atrophic onychomycosis. In the first case, the nail dulls and thickens. With atrophy, the color of the plate changes to brown. Its detachment is observed. With normotrophic onychomycosis, the shape and size of the nail do not change. With the development of onychomycosis on the feet, the following symptoms are observed:
- decreased nail density;
- changing its color;
- the presence of white or yellow spots;
- cracked skin;
- thickening of the plate;
- increased fragility.
If the treatment of nail fungus is not carried out, then there is a risk of developing paronychia. In this condition, purulent inflammation of the nail bed occurs.
Examination and treatment tactics
You need to know not only how the fungus begins on the foot, but also how to get rid of it. The therapy regimen is determined by the attending physician. Prior to this, the following studies will be needed:
- inspection with a Wood lamp;
- scraping microscopy;
- general clinical analyzes;
- sowing on a nutrient medium.
Differential diagnosis is carried out with psoriasis, onychodystrophy, lichen planus, congenital pachyonychia, trauma and eczema.
Every experienced dermatovenerologist knows how to treat toenail fungus. Antifungal drugs are used in the form of solutions, creams and varnishes.
Toe fungus treatment often involves surgery. The affected nail is removed.
With a long course of epidermophytosis, a systemic remedy for foot fungus based on miconazole or ketoconazole may be prescribed. Correct treatment will kill germs. There are products on sale that fit the passage of the affected nail plates. They come in the form of patches.
To increase the effectiveness of the treatment of skin fungus on the legs, vitamins, antibiotics (in case of a secondary infection) and various ointments based on zinc and salicylic acid are prescribed.
You also need to follow some rules:
- Feet should be washed daily.
- Change your socks more often.
- After the end of therapy, old things should be thrown away.
- Socks, tights and stockings should be washed in a separate basin.
- When a fungus is found on the foot, the treatment will be successful if closed slippers are worn.
At the end of therapy, a control study of scraping is carried out.