Onychomycosis – a disease that destroys the nail plate. The fungus eats the keratin – building the Foundation of the nail. The infection gets into the extracellular space and begins its division. In advanced stages of the pathology can affect the skin of the feet, toe area, heel.
The causes of toe nail fungus
You can get infected with onychomycosis easy enough. The infection can lurk on the beach, public shower, or swimming pool. A high probability of catching a fungus from infected relatives or friends (using the common tools of everyday life).
There are several main reasons that can trigger the virus spread in the human body:
- weak immune system – reduction of protective forces as a result of diseases of infectious or inflammatory origin.
- pathology of blood vessels (vein occlusion) violations of the internal organs (diabetes) that lead to problems with blood circulation in the lower extremities;
- minor damage to the skin on the feet (abrasions, micro-cracks, corns, calluses), resulting from wearing tight shoes;
- ignoring the rash and intense sweating of the lower extremities;
- violation of precautionary measures – trying on someone else's shoes, visiting public places without Slippers, and neglect of hygiene of the feet.
Types of nail fungus
Onychomycosis can provoke several types of fungi. Dermatophytes, for example, manifested in the form of opacities of the nail. Observed the formation of yellow spots on the edges or in the middle of the plate. In addition, there may be a longitudinal strip along the affected area.
Yeast fungus provokes a deformation of the nail plate. It greatly thins and begins to move away from its place, it becomes grayish. Metabolism of injured cells worsens, the nail shaft furrows appear. In addition, the surrounding epidermis appears inflammation, swelling, redness, observed the disappearance of the nail skin.
Molds bacteria can injure the nail plate if there are already diseases that cause malnutrition nails. In this case also clouding of the plates, changing its colour (from light yellow and green to brown and even black).
To find out the cause and the causative agent of negative changes in the skin and nails, you need to see a specialist. Self-definition of the disease and its treatment without consulting a doctor can be fraught with consequences.
The stage of the disease
Fungal infection of the nails affects healthy cells gradually. The disease has several stages of development, each of which has its specific manifestations.
The first stage of onychomycosis (normotroficheskie) has no striking manifestations. In most cases it's hidden flows. The first signs of a fingernail is a bit dim, change color, microcracks and yellow spots in the form of circles or predilecta, there is a tuberosity. Budding fungus can be accompanied by itching and burning. To correctly detect the infection in its initial stages is difficult as symptoms are similar with other diseases (psoriasis, liver disease).
If time does not begin treatment, the disease will move to the next stage – hypertrophic. The nail becomes thickened, dark. The deformation of the plate, its crushing and destruction.
Running a form of nail disease manifested by severe thinning of the nail plate, which leads to further rejection. The surrounding skin turns blue, there is an unpleasant smell.
Onychomycosis affects the toenails, rarely suffer hands. The disease begins with the thumb and little finger (raised outer edge), gradually hitting all of the plate.
To determine fungal infection will help leading symptoms of onychomycosis:
- the appearance of stripes and spots whitish or greenish hue under the nails;
- clouding of the plates, changing its colour (from yellow to dark brown);
- redness and peeling of the skin around the nail;
- the appearance of rough patches on the feet and between the toes;
- the formation of mold on the nails.
Types of fungal infections of nails
Onychomycosis usually classified according to appearance of the affected areas. Since classifying a sign stands what looks like fungus on the nails, it differentialsa three types, depending on the clinical manifestations:
- atrophic, or animalisticheskih – in which the nail plate is affected significantly, to the point of rejection from the nail bed;
- hypertrophic form, which have lost their natural luster the nail changes its color (white or, on the contrary, in the dark) and structure (tangible thickens) with the advent of different kinds of deformations and even breaks at the edges;
- normotroficheskie – the species characterized by the smallest degree of damage, in which the nail plate is not thickened, while remaining shiny and smooth, but still outwardly transformed by the appearance of spots, stripes and other visible changes in its natural transparency and colour.
In foreign countries there is another classification according to which nail fungus is divided into types depending on the lesion:
- total, in which the pathogenic process covered the entire nail plate;
- the distal form of the lesion, localizing only on the free edge of the nail acting on the finger pad;
- proximal that destroys the edge of the plate, leaving the nail shaft (opposite the free edge of the nail!);
- the lateral form of lesions affecting the lateral side of the nail plate.
Looks like pathology
Common among the population of fungal nail diseases have resemblance with other dermatological diseases negribkovoy nature. Depending on the stage of the disease, the nails begin to look unhealthy because lose the natural Shine and transparency. From smooth and flat, they become thick and deformed, and covered with various colors (usually white or dirty yellow) tinge. Soft tissue surrounding the parasite destroys the keratin layer is also involved in inflammatory reactions, swelling and syazwani.
If you look at the picture of the destruction of the nail plate from the perspective of the dynamics of the disease, it can be divided into three successive stages:
- At the very first stage, almost no sign, except for light tarnish, dots or stripes on the record.
- On the so-called severe stage, quickly changing the start, all the symptoms of onychomycosis becomes apparent.
- Advanced stage – that's the ultimate degeneration of the nail, may be supplemented by an odor of decaying tissue.
Causes deformation of the nail
Molds, yeast-like fungi and fungi-dermatophytes cause infectious diseases of the nails (onychomycosis), manifested similar symptoms. All kinds of fungus of the nails on the feet or hands deformed nail plate, change its transparency, luster, color. Nail changes are found not only in onychomycosis, but also for injuries, chronic paronychia (inflammation of the nail fold), psoriasis, eczema brush, dermatitis. Before making a conclusion about a fungal infection, you need to consider all possible options.
The symptoms of fungal
There are different classifications of nail fungus-depending on type and symptoms they may have completely different signs and symptoms, so it is very important to determine its (psoriasis, eczema, ringworm and stop dermatophyte very similar). Superficial onychomycosis on fingers is manifested almost immediately after infection, consider the symptoms and signs of fungus on the nails of feet and hands:
- Thickened plate;
- Fragile, crumbly or ragged nails, not only by region but over the entire surface;
- Distorted shape, a scaly structure;
- The initial stage – loss of Shine and elasticity;
- If the nail turned black (does not count in the case when a person regularly works with coloring compounds or mechanical parts);
- Bump nails under the skin;
- Starts dizbakterioz, perhaps the General decline of immunity, strength, drowsiness;
- Itching between the toes and on the foot, especially pronounced in children;
- Peel from the nail bed, this is a very common phenomenon and almost the last stage before the complete loss of the nail, which is called onycholysis. You may feel pain in your toes and detect a slightly unpleasant smell;
- The skin becomes dry, cracked, rash, perhaps even the appearance of blood or of lymph;
- Musty white or yellow under the nail, depending on the species of fungus, it can be bright, dull, with defined edges and muddy structure.
Before the beginning of active actions, you need to minimize the negative impact of the external environment, to eliminate the reasons why there was fungus under the toenails:
- Warm and moist environment perfect for growth of various microorganisms, all the time, try after a day to dry shoes, wear socks made of natural materials, which provide normal heat and air exchange;
- Foot fungus can often appear due to poor immunity, You can just to step bare foot on the floor and pick up an infection, to avoid this, take vitamins;
- Often nails can become one of the causes of onychomycosis, limit procedure to 1 session every six months;
- The most difficult output is a fungus, called active spores. They penetrate into the hollows between the toes and fingers can be some time in the sleep phase, and then sharply grow. Most often they catch in public areas (swimming pools, shower booths, tanning) when using someone else's shoes, etc.
Common types of athlete's foot
There are many ways to get foot fungus, but perhaps it is only in direct contact with the pathogen. This most often happens while using other person's shoes, or for violation of rules of personal hygiene. Skin fungus on the feet is usually through destruction of the dermis layer, which is peeling. Destruction of the epidermis in this case is caused when the infection penetrates in the deeper layers of the skin, destroying its structure.
Modern medicine identifies the following options for fungal infections of the feet, each of which has its own symptoms and treatment options:
- Interdigital athlete's foot is the most common form of the disease manifests itself. The symptom is usually localized in the interval between 3 and 4 fingers, at least between 4 and 5, it looks like the crack is covered with a white film. From the resulting stratification of the epidermis may allocate a certain amount of liquid, peeling borders and the emergence of signs of diaper rash. Be accompanied by signs of interdigital foot fungus can mild itching. This fungus on the toes initially, can occur completely without symptoms, but in the future there is a significant change in the structure of the skin.
- Fungus squamous giperkineticeski can be distinguished from other types of strong exfoliation and cornification, which affects the epidermis. Characteristic of persons suffering from various types of dermatitis, mainly atopic. This is another type of the disease that you can clearly see what are the fungi on the feet. The main sign of the disease is the appearance of erythema, painful pink nodules on the affected area which has clear boundaries. Accompanied by mild itching, cracks on the feet, dryness, pain discomfort, yellowing of the cover and the defeat of nail plates. Onychomycosis, usually accompanying this type of fungus leads to the nails;
- Fungus vesicular – one of the most rare types of infection that affects the skin of the feet. The name of the disease has received for the formation of vesicles – bubbles with a liquid content on the site which then formed erosion threat for infection. The main characteristics which distinguish the fungal vesicules: the appearance of blisters with a diameter of 1 cm and a weak itch;
- The powdered fungus. At the initial stage, there is a slight peeling on the feet, as well as the emergence of small cracks, apparently affecting only the top layer of the epidermis.
- Fungus skin infection which occurs in medical practice, only 8% of patients infected with avium. Is localized predominantly on the sole and the arch of the foot, manifested in the form of bubbles, gradually merging into one, then a gap, followed by the formation of extensive erosion type. The danger of fungus of this type is the possibility of secondary bacterial infection, because pathogens can easily penetrate through the resulting wound;
- Mycosis intertriginosny occurs not only independently, but also as escorts for the squamous form of foot fungus. Manifests between the toes, characterized by severe itching and burning, diaper rash and the appearance of erosions;
- Onychomycosis is another common lesion, which is a fungus of the toenails. Usually develops with the free edge of the nail plate, the initial stage is characterized by appearance of yellow spots, followed by the progression of the disease with the delamination and complete discharge of the nail. Often accompanies other forms of fungal infections;
- The Candida fungus, also called yeast erosion, which is localized in the interdigital space. In this case, the fungus looks like a concentration inflamed swollen areas of the skin which may be surrounded by small pustules form.